Happy Fourth of July everybody !!!
The Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) is considered the beginning of the American revolution. The Boston Massacre actually started when a group of kids heckled the British solders protecting unpopular customs officials. Unruly bar patrons joined the kids and eventually one of the patrons, Crispus Attucks an Indian-black mixed-race sailor (some think a pirate) came from the bar Royal Exchange and clobbered one of the British soldiers. Attucks was then shot dead along with 4 others and several more were wounded.
John Adams (yes, that John Adams) and Josiah Quincy defended the British solders. Adams labeled the crowd a “motley rabble of saucy boys, negroes and molattoes, Irish teagues, and out landish Jack Tarrs” and stated that the "appearance of Attucks would be enough to terrify any person.” The British solders were all acquitted except for two who were branded on the hand. (not much punishment for killing 5 people and starting a war is it?)
John Adams (yes, that John Adams) later signed a letter about liberty to Massachusetts Gov. Thomas Hutchinson with the name Crispus Attucks instead of his own. ( I assume to honor Attucks’s memory.) These bar patrons were drunks, gamblers, pirates and prostitutes and average working men. Yet the 1787 Philadelphia Convention that drafted the Constitution was dominated by wealthy conservatives. Some of the early acts passed by the new United States Congress were about controlling the population.
The struggle begins anew.
From the books “A People’s History of the United States” By Howard Zinn and “A Renegade History of the United States” by Thaddeus Russell.
saucy boys = impertinent or disrespectful
molattoes = mixed race
Irish teagues = Irish Catholics, meant as an insult.
Jack Tarrs = sailors